Many of these terms may also have other quite valid definitions, but this glossary is to help people understand how we at Creative New Zealand use these terms.
An activity can be a single project, eg a residency programme or an integrated programme to be offered over a defined period, eg an exhibition or series of exhibitions, a publication or series of publications. An activity can also be a service or services to be made available to artists and practitioners.
Examples of activities in a 'regular programme' would be:
- a regional arts festival delivering a programme once very two years
- a three month artists' residency offered annually for three years.
Examples of activities within a 'continuous programme' would be:
- a threatre company delivering an annual season of productions
- an organisation delivering an ongoing programme of arts activities.
A detailed budget for each proposed activity for which you are seeking funding.
Terms used in a Statement of Financial Performance. Activity revenue (also called variable revenue) results directly from runninng an activity. Activity costs (also called variable costs) are in curred directly as a result of running an activity.
One of various forms of arts practice, for example theatre or dance.
Developing the arts involves identifying and encouraging the development of:
- high-quality and innovative art
- individual artists and arts practitioners through improving their artistic quality, their ability to be innovative, or their productivity, so that they can reach their potential and achieve their goals
- arts organisations through improving their artistic quality, organisational effectiveness, and financial health
- New Zealand’s arts infrastructure, arts communities and audiences.
An audience development programme or initiative aims to have audiences more engaged and participating more often, and to encourage new audiences.Back to top
Activities or methods that are shown to produce the best results.Back to top
A community is defined by the people within it – and may be based around a place, a cultural tradition, or commonly held interests or experiences.
Creative New Zealand recognises three core strands of activity as community arts and these are:
Community Cultural Development
- collaboration of arts practitioners with communities to achieve artistic and social outcomes
- processes of collective creativity
- community-based issues focused on through the arts (for example in relation to the environment or to issues of social equity).
Maintenance and Transmission of Cultural Traditions
- Māori and Pasifika Heritage Artforms
- defined groups of interest (such as migrant communities) maintaining and preserving their distinctive artistic and cultural traditions from one generation to the next.
Leisure and Recreation Activities
- community-based arts groups devoted to the recreational pursuit of diverse artforms.
The community arts focus for our investment programmes, Toi Uru Kahikatea and Toi Totara Haemata, is on collaboration with the communities concerned, as opposed to the provision of arts experiences for these communities. Organisations that receive funding through these programmes may contribute to community arts through:
- the maintenance and transmission of cultural traditions
- community cultural development.
By supporting initiatives that encourage participation in the arts, Creative New Zealand’s focus is mainly on people’s active involvement in the arts. There are also community arts activities. e.g. workshops, wānanga or fono — in which participants are involved actively and receptively in the learning, practice, presentation and appreciation of their traditional arts practices. This means that participants may not be actively involved in the activity but may be present at the activity, listening, learning and acquiring skills and knowledge.
Creative New Zealand sees craft/object art as including the traditional applied arts and contemporary practices of all the peoples of Aotearoa/New Zealand, including Māori and Pasifika peoples and the diverse cultures of people living in Aotearoa/New Zealand today. Genres include, but are not limited to, ceramics, furniture, glass, jewellery, object making, studio-based design, raranga, tāniko, tapa making, textiles, tivaevae, typography, and weaving.
For design, our focus is on the development and/or public presentation of new work by independent studio-based designers. Creative New Zealand recognises that the boundaries between craft/object art and the visual arts are not precise. Makers and artists usually define for themselves how their practice, or different aspects of their practice, relates to a given artform.
Writing projects which use literary techniques to create factually accurate work. They are assessed on their literary merit. All non-fiction projects must demonstrate literary merit to be considered for support.
Relates to the particular artistic heritage that the project or activity is part of, for example:
- a dance project with a focus on tango would be Latin American
- an Indonesian wayang kulit (shadow puppet) production would be Southeast Asian
- a project featuring a group of ueillian bagpipers would be Anglo-Saxon / Celtic.
It does not relate to the individual applicant’s ethnic affiliations or geographical origins.
In the Craft Object and Visual Arts sectors a curator selects, presents and provides interpretation of works of art. In addition to selecting specific works for public presentation, curators are often responsible for the consideration and promotion of contemporary artists and artworks within exhibitions, publications and the broader discourse of the Craft Object and Visual Arts sectors. Creative New Zealand’s support for curators and curatorial development is primarily focussed on freelance curators and their projects, rather than institutionally affiliated/employed curators.
Customary Māori arts include, but are not limited to, projects focused on one or more of the following: rāranga, tukutuku, kowhaiwhai, ta moko, kaupapa waka, oral arts, eg karanga, whaikōrero, pao, mōteatea, whakairo and/or Māori performing arts, eg kapa haka waiata a ringa, waiata tawhito, poi, whakaeke, whakawaatea, waiata haka, mau rakau, taonga pūoro and traditional Māori games. Creative New Zealand recognises that Ngā Toi Māori activities and programmes may involve elements of both customary and contemporary practice. The term Customary Māori arts is used by Creative New Zealand to track how Māori artists and the arts sector as a whole are working.Back to top
Dance includes classical and contemporary dance; street, experimental and integrated dance; and traditional and contemporary Maori and Pacific Island dance.
Creative New Zealand expects that a strong response to New Zealand's demography will be demonstrated through the following practices:
- activity that responds to and engages with a diverse range of communities
- activity that will engage with artists/or audiences in regional centres or rural areas
- activity that furthers the careers of artists drawn from a diverse range of communities
- activity that consistently includes Māori work and/or delivers to the Māori community
- activity that consistently includes Pasifika work and/or delivers to the Pasifika community
- activity that furthers the careers of Māori artists and arts practitioners
- activity that furthers the careers of Pasifika artists and arts practitioners.
Creative New Zealand can support non-commercial projects that recognise and build on the interaction between design and arts practice. Creative New Zealand supports 2D design projects focused on typography, poster design, graphic design and publication design through the Visual arts artform category. 3D design projects are supported through the craft/object artform category and can include furniture and object-based design projects.
All online, mobile and broadcast media, and offline passive and interactive digital devices and platforms, that produce, distribute and consume creative digital content.
For the purposes of international touring or exhibiting, an artwork is ‘distinctive’ if it has been created by a New Zealand citizen or resident and has at least two of the following four features:
- it has distinguishing characteristics that are typical of New Zealand art, music, dance, poetry and such like
- it conveys or expresses experiences, attitudes and styles unique to the New Zealand way of life or to New Zealand’s history
- it has representational, symbolic or iconic significance for New Zealand when taken abroad
- it displays an authenticity and originality peculiar to the artist or artists who created it.
The action of spreading or dispensing a work throughout a region. Distribution may involve the physical touring of a work (through, for example, exhibitions or performances), or the publishing and promotion of a literary work, or the digital transfer of an artwork by means of digital files passed between devices (such as computers and mobile phones) that are capable of reading digital formats.
See also Touring.
Are practitioners and organisations that have a proven ability to organise effectively and efficiently the physical distribution of the arts within New Zealand. This includes:
- theatre and dance producers
- music tour managers
- organisers of visual arts and craft/object touring exhibitions
- the organisers of a writers’ tour where a group of writers travel together to read and promote their work at a series of local venues
- regional venues and galleries that receive touring work.
Creative New Zealand support is available to all New Zealanders, irrespective of age, gender, ethnic affiliations, physical or other disability, sexual orientation or religion. For further information see our Diversity in the Arts Policy 2015Back to top
An artist who:
- has received recognition for the public presentation of at least one work in the area of arts practice for which they’re applying funding
- is recognised by peers or experts in the artist’s area of arts practice, which can include kaumātua or kuia, or other people of standing within the artist’s community
- has specialised training or practical experience in their area of arts practice (training need not have been at an academic institution)
Also see Public presentation
An established artist, arts practitioner, group or organisation:
- has recently achieved the successful public presentation of at least three high-quality artworks, events or programmes in an area of arts practice, and
- has endorsement and support for their work from at least two peers or experts in their area of arts practice, and
- is acknowledged as being established in their area of arts practice.
Also see Public presentationBack to top
The person who has overall responsibility for the financial and organisational management of a company or group. A General Manager will be retained by the company or group by means of a mutually agreed, written contract based on a clear job description. The contract will outline the rights, responsibilities and authorities of the General Manager, their remuneration and any reporting requirements to a Board or owners of the company.
A category of artistic, musical or literary composition characterised by a particular style, form or content; a kind or type of work.Back to top
Artistic expressions and forms reflecting a particular cultural tradition or traditions that continue to be celebrated and practised by New Zealand artists and practitioners, and that are appreciated and supported by New Zealand communities.
Assessors for Arts Grants, Quick Response and the Toi Tōtara Haemata and Toi Uru Kahikatea programmes pay particular attention to the strength of the idea; the viability of the process; the experience and ability of the people involved; and the soundness of the budget. Applications that are strong in some, but not all, of the above areas are seen as having potential.Back to top
Involves the creation of value out of new ideas, products, arts experiences, services, or ways of doing things. An ‘innovative’ arts practitioner will understand the skills and techniques required by their area of arts practice, but will not rely on established ideas, forms or ways of working. They will be actively investigating new ways of working and will be taking artistic risks.
Actual innovation will depend on context (when and where the project is to happen). It may exist in the form of the work, the process of creating the work, the way the work is presented, the ways the work engages with its audience, or the way in which skills and techniques are passed on.
A programme that has more than one work/event and which:
- has as its main focus the development or presentation of the arts or participation in the arts
- has an overall artistic vision and is conceived, produced, curated, marketed and presented as an integrated package
- occurs within a defined area or region and within a defined period of time.
An integrated programme of work may be offered in a variety of contexts, including programmes offered by an arts festival, an artist-run gallery, or a theatre company.
Interarts projects integrate artforms of any cultural tradition, combining them to create a new and distinct work. The result of this integration is a hybrid or fusion of artforms outside of Creative New Zealand’s artform categories.
Involves people from different cultural traditions or artistic backgrounds actively collaborating on a specific project or activity. It includes the development and promotion of artistic links between tāngata whenua and other first-nations peoples.
An artwork by an international-ready artist or company is internationally viable if there is clear evidence that taking it overseas is feasible and practicable. There needs to be evidence of:
- adequate financial resources
- professional expertise of the individuals involved
- robust infrastructure to support taking the work overseas
- the use of appropriate marketing tools
The artwork’s potential for continued life overseas beyond the proposed presentations will also be considered.
An ‘international ready’ artist or company will have:
- a track record of work that demonstrates the three criteria of international quality, distinctiveness and viability
- infrastructure and the skills to work internationally and to support international engagement
- a proven track record of successful work (for example, they’ve had at least three books or scores published, or had three works tour New Zealand, or had works exhibited in at least three solo or group exhibitions)
- a proven track record of the distribution of their work in New Zealand
- already achieved international success, and
- a desire for international engagement and a strategy for undertaking it.
A period of work placement where a person works alongside and learns from a more experienced person working in their field, such as a gallery curator. It is expected the learning area (or areas) will be identified as part of any internship proposal.
Making a monetary or other tangible contribution to a project or activity with the expectation of some form of return to the investor. Creative New Zealand expects its allocation of public funds to result in identifiable returns and benefits for New Zealand. The returns we seek are the outcomes stated in our Strategic Plan and Statement of Intent. We are more likely to contribute towards (‘invest’ in) projects and organisations that can clearly demonstrate an ability to deliver the results we are seeking.Back to top
Pacific Arts applications are assessed on the extent to which Kaupapa Pasifika is evident in the practice and results of the proposed project. Kaupapa Pasifika refers to a foundation of understanding and knowledge created by Pasifika people and expressing Pasifika aspirations, values and principles. It is based on these two concepts:
- Kaupapa – awareness of the unique cultural perspectives of a distinct group of New Zealanders.
- Pasifika – the unique cultural perspectives and beliefs embodied in the values, customs, rituals, dance, song, language and cultural expressions of the individual Pasifika nations.
The combination of the two attributes reflects the unique context of Aotearoa-based Pasifika communities, their Pasifika aspirations, values and principles and desire to express cultural values and world views that relate to their experience as Pasifika peoples living in New Zealand.
When assessing a culturally-specific heritage arts application, it will replace the concept of Kaupapa Pasifika with the specific island group, for example, Kaupapa Samoa or Kaupapa Fiji. This is similar to the terms Fa’a Samoa or Vaka Viti meaning ’the Samoan way’ or ’the Fijian way’.
See also Pacific arts.
Refers to specific aspects of the New Zealand arts infrastructure that Creative New Zealand funds arts organisations to carry out. The term key role is used in relation to the Arts Leadership Investment (Toi Tōtara Haemata) programme. When determining Toi Tōtara Haemata key roles, Creative New Zealand identifies its own responsibilities in funding specific areas of arts practice, taking account of the funding responsibilities of other central and local government funders and support provided by the private sector.Back to top
Include fees and expenses incurred where the arts activity takes place overseas. Landed costs will generally be paid for by a presenter and include:
- artists fees
- ground transport
- marketing, technical support and presentation
- per diems (daily allowances).
Literature is a broad, inclusive concept. Creative New Zealand will consider proposals from writers and illustrators to research and write high-quality work in fiction or non-fiction.
Fiction includes, but isn’t limited to, novels, novellas, short stories, poetry, children’s fiction, young adult fiction, graphic novels, illustrated picture books, and speculative fiction such as fantasy fiction, science fiction, detective fiction, and historical fiction.
Non-fiction includes, but isn’t limited to, autobiography, biography, essays, social commentary, literary criticism, reviews, analytical prose, non-fiction written for children, young adult non-fiction, and writing about the physical and natural sciences.
Community-based art activities that are mainly intended to benefit local communitiesBack to top
We use the term Māori led to mean an entity:
- that is led by artists or arts practitioners of Tangata Whenua Māori whakapapa who have formal authority to make decisions in operations and governance of the entity managing the organisation (not all governance or senior leadership of the entity is required to be Māori)
- where Kaupapa Māori is evident in:
- mātauranga, tikanga and te reo Māori in the approach, cultural and creative practice and results of the work of the entity
- the entity’s empowerment of Māori artists, arts practitioners and Māori communities – supporting the transmission of Māori arts knowledge, skills and practice
- with a Māori arts, cultural and creative focus: the entity delivers high-quality work that supports Māori artists, practitioners, audiences, communities, arts practice and sector development and creates space for Māori arts to evolve.
A programme that maximises opportunities for developing sustainable markets for the arts through strategic investments and partnerships, either nationally and internationally.
Classes, workshops, seminars or other training offered by experienced and respected artists and practitioners (see also Wānanga).
Mātauranga Māori literally translated means 'Māori knowledge'. It’s a modern term that broadly includes traditions, values, concepts, philosophies, world views and understandings derived from uniquely Māori cultural points of view. It traverses customary and contemporary systems of knowledge. In everyday situations, Mātauranga Māori is an umbrella term that draws on knowledge systems such as whakapapa (genealogy), tikanga Māori (Māori protocol), manaaki (hospitality and consideration), taonga tuku iho Māori (treasured arts and heritage).
Media arts includes a variety of artistic practices that use digital or analogue technologies within a screen-based, electronic, internet or mobile device domain.
Media arts projects may include animation, dance films, experimental films, experimental sound/audio, moving-image arts projects, network cultures and web-based art.
When an established artist or practitioner passes on skills or knowledge to a less-experienced artist or practitioner. Mentoring may involve giving feedback on a project, helping the mentee develop skills, or buildnig knowledge of the professional arts sector.
Moving-image projects can include fine-art video projects, installations, and experimental multidisciplinary arts projects.
Projects and activities that do not feature one main artform and that involve at least two different artforms, of any cultural tradition.
An arts festival that takes place within a defined area or region over a designated period of time and involves a programme of arts events and activities that features at least two different artforms, of any cultural tradition.
Projects involving more than one material or artform.
Music includes classical and contemporary music; orchestral, choral, and band music; opera; jazz and improvised music; sound art; contemporary popular music; 'world' music; and traditional and contemporary Māori and Pacific Island music.Back to top
The field of network cultures revolves around the interaction between forms of media such as the internet and mobile telephony, where the users themselves shape the technology.
Original work created by a New Zealand citizen or resident (whether living or dead), and to subsequent presentations or exhibitions of that work.
Ngā toi Māori (Māori arts) include, but are not limited to, Māori heritage arts practice such as: taonga puoro, tārai waka, kaupapa waka, whakairo, rāranga, tāniko, kākahu, tukutuku, kōwhaiwhai, tā moko, kapa haka, mōteatea, waiata ā-ringa, waiata tawhito, poi, waiata haka, pao, mau rākau, whaikōrero, karanga, whakapapa recitation, te reo me onā tikanga, whakairo, kōrero paki, pakiwaitara, karetao, whare tapere and whakaraka. It also includes the work of Māori artists across all forms of contemporary arts practice.
Terms used in the Statement of Financial Performance. Non-activity revenue (also called fixed revenue) is revenue that is not earned through running activities. Non-activity costs area business overhead costs that are independent of the costs related to running activities (also called fixed costs).Back to top
We define Oceania as including the island countries of the Pacific Realm, Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia.Back to top
Pacific arts includes Pasifika artists undertaking contemporary and heritage arts projects in all art forms — craft/object art, dance, inter-arts, literature, media arts, music, theatre and visual arts.
Pan-artform festivals involve a series of events occurring within a defined region in a defined period with an overall artistic vision and programme that is curated, presented, promoted and marketed as an integrated package. The festival will involve at least three art forms, be focussed on the development and presentation of the arts and offer community arts participation and engagement opportunities.
- that is led by artists or arts practitioners of Pasifika heritage/identity who have formal authority to make decisions in operations and governance of the entity managing the arts project (not all governance or senior leadership of the entity is required to be Pasifika)
- where Kaupapa Pasifika is evident in:
- the practice and results of the work of the entity
- the entity’s foundation of understanding and knowledge - created by Pasifika people and expressing Pasifika aspirations, values and principles
- the communities the entity serves and its empowerment of Pasifika artists, arts practitioners and Pasifika communities
- the entity’s expression of cultural perspectives and beliefs embodied in the values, customs, rituals, dance, song, language and cultural expressions of the individual Pasifika nations but reflecting the unique context of Aotearoa-based Pasifika communities – for example, Vaka Viti (Fijian way), Fa’a Samoa (Samoan way)
- with a Pasifika arts, cultural and creative focus: the entity delivers high-quality work that supports Pasifika artists, practitioners, audiences, communities, arts practice and sector development and creates space for Pasifika arts to evolve.
The term encompasses a wider group than the term ‘artists’. It includes people involved in organising the project and can include producers, stage managers, technicians, publishers, editors, translators, curators, agents and dealers, as well as community-based practitioners. The term includes those people who may not necessarily classify themselves as artists, but who may be necessary to creating, presenting or distributing an artwork.
The person responsible for the organisation of a production and is responsible for planning and overseeing the execution of all the elements required to ensure that a production occurs on time and on budget. A producer may be an individual or a company.
Are individuals who:
- have acquired advanced knowledge or training within their chosen artform (this includes artists from diverse cultural backgrounds whose artistic or cultural knowledge has been developed through oral traditions; professional artists who are self-taught; and artists of professional calibre who must work outside the arts to generate income)
- have received the recognition of their peers through the public presentation of their work in a professional context (this includes publishing, performing and exhibiting)
- have a serious commitment to their arts practice and consider it a major part of their working life, rather than as a pastime, and
- have maintained professional practice for at least three years.
A self-contained activity that is time bound with an identifiable start and end date.
May include an exhibition, installation, publication or a performance. Venues may include (but are not confined to) a marae, theatre, gallery, bookshop or found space. For the presentation to qualify as a ‘public presentation’:
- it must be open to members of the public to attend, view, read, or buy the work being presented
- there must be public notification of the time and place at which the presentation will be available to the public, and
- the presentation must seek and encourage critiques, reviews or peer evaluations of the presented work.
Performances, presentations, publications, exhibitions and showings made as part of a course of study do not count as public presentations.Back to top
A reworked production or a new version of an existing work, piece or exhibition.
A host organisation supporting an artist to work with a community in a specific environment for a set period of time. The artist is expected to have meaningful interactions with the community. The host is expected to provide the artist with opportunities to develop new skills or directions in their work, or to produce a substantial body of new work.Back to top
The ‘New Zealand arts sector’ refers to the New Zealand arts community and all the artists, practitioners and organisations that contribute to creating, presenting and distributing the arts of New Zealand. The term ‘sector’ can also be used to refer to the artists, practitioners and organisations that make up a particular form of arts practice, such as the dance sector, the music sector and the literary sector.Back to top
Refers to the Māori people, who are the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand and who embody its indigenous culture. Translated the term means ‘the people of the land’.
Theatre includes both classical and contemporary theatre, and all genres such as comedy, drama, physical theatre, devised theatre, street theatre, musical theatre, circus, puppetry, mask and theatre for children.
Also known as the Arts Leadership Investment programme. This Programme with the Arts Development Investment (Toi Uru Kahikatea) provide ongoing funding over several years to artists, arts practitioners and arts organisations to support continuous programmes of activity and ongoing infrastructure.
Toi is te reo for Arts. The tōtara is a native tree to Aotearoa: Haemata refers to the human qualities in this case growth, development, power, strength, protection, and leadership.
Also known as the Arts Development Investment programme. This programme with the Arts Leadership Investment (Toi Tōtara Haemata) provide ongoing funding over several years to artists, arts practitioners and arts organisations to support continuous programmes of activity and ongoing infrastructure.
Toi is te reo for Arts. Uru refers to a grove of trees. Kahikatea are native trees that often grow together and can be among the tallest trees in the New Zealand forest. A Kahikatea of 56 meters (185 ft) is the tallest native tree in the country. Kahikatea can grow in quite marginal land and are noted for the density and purity of the stands it forms in swampy areas and along river banks. It is also known for its strength.
Involves three or more consecutive performances, presentations or exhibitions in different locations and can include the place of origin.
To be eligible for funding, an individual or arts organisation must have some experience and must have achieved recognition and success in the area of arts practice for which they’re applying for support. The level of experience, recognition and success vary according to the type of grant or investment applied for (an Arts Grant, Quick Response Grant, or an Arts Development Investment).
For Arts Grants and Quick Response Grants, artists or practitioners must:
- have specialised training or practical experience in arts practice (training need not have been at an academic institution)
- have recognition from peers or experts in their area of arts practice, which can include kaumātua or kuia, or other people of standing within the applicant’s community, and
- have achieved 'success' in their area of arts practice.
Success for Arts Grants and Quick Response Grants is defined as having at least one publicly presented work, which has received some critical or sales success. This does not include presentations made as part of a course of study. For example:
- a theatre practitioner having undertaken a key creative role (director, actor or stage manager) in at least one theatre production that achieved a degree of critical or box-office success
- a craft/object or visual artist having had at least one public exhibition of a body of work that achieved a degree of critical or sales success, whether in a solo show or as part of a group exhibition
- an author having had at least one work published that received a degree of critical or sales success in the literature genre for which they’re now applying
- a publisher having previously published at least one work by a New Zealand author that achieved a degree of critical or sales success
- a choreographer having choreographed at least one publicly presented work that achieved a degree of critical or box-office success
- a music group having performed and achieved a degree of critical or box-office success
- a curator having curated a work that was exhibited at a gallery or found space and that received a degree of critical acclaim
- a carver who has been mentored by established carvers, or who has completed a course at a marae-based or recognised wānanga
- a weaving group with a record of successful exhibitions and workshops in the community.
For Toi Uru Kahikatea (Arts Development) investments you must be an established artist, practitioner, group or arts organisation who has received, delivered and reported successfully on:
- at least three project grants (Arts Grants or Quick Response).
- an investment grant from Toi Uru Kahikatea or Toi Tōtara Haemata within the last three years.
Visual arts includes, but is not limited to, drawing, experimental sound/audio and moving-image arts projects, installation, kōwhaiwhai, painting, performance within a visual arts context, photography, printmaking, sculpture, tā moko, and typography. Visual arts also includes customary and contemporary practices of all the peoples of Aotearoa/New Zealand, including Māori and Pasifika peoples and the diverse cultures of people living in Aotearoa/New Zealand today.Back to top
A Māori term for a forum or workshop.Back to top
Those aged up to 18 years.
Those aged between 18 and 25.Back to top